According to Kautilya, a state has seven elements or constituents, namely, Swamin— the King, Amatya—the Minister, Janapada—the Land, and the People, Durga—the Fortress, Kosha—the Treasury, Danda—the Army and Mitra—the Allies. This entire set-up of the kingdom was described as Saptanga theory in ancient India. (Wiki source)
It was quite progressive and systematic for its times (3rd. or 4th century BCE .. Before Common Era) but it lacked the most important defining feature of modern liberal democracy.. that is, Universal Suffrage which can remove or restrain the king. This was to be expected in absence of enabling technology .. faster means of communication and transport.